Notes on Directions and Targets of Intelligence Work Abroad
Copy No. __
Fundamental Directions and Targets of Intelligence Work Outside the Country
Table of Contents
Print run 50
Journal no. 174/7-38ss
Publication No. 6/31
Note: This is a summary translation of the original Russian document. Only lines with quotation marks are direct translations from the text.
A reliable and dedicated agents’ network is the chief method of foreign intelligence for socialist countries. Intelligence gathered is used by socialist governments in foreign policy and economic planning and strengthening their international authority.
There shouldn’t be a strict separation of functions but close cooperation.
Political Intelligence, Scientific-Technical Intelligence and Counterintelligence Work Abroad
Each branch has their own lines of work and specific tasks and objectives for penetration but they are all interactive and subordinate to one goal, state security and strengthening foreign policy positions. There are ongoing and long-term tasks.
The state of relations between the socialist state and the Western country, the presence of foreign military bases, intelligence and other subversive organizations and subversive centers determine the nature of the intelligence tasks in a given country.
Before WWII, Soviet intelligence focus was on fascist Germany and imperialist Japan which were secretly preparing war against the USSR. Now the main enemy of the Soviet Union is the USA. , although revanchism in West Germany cannot be let out of sight.
Each country has its set of concerns, i.e. Bulgaria has to attend to Turkey and Greece, Czechoslovakia to attend to the FRG [West Germany] and Austria.
The targets of socialist intelligence are capitalist states, military, political and economic blocs of these countries and various international organizations (except those of the socialist countries).
In the narrow sense, the objectives are the government and other institutions, parties etc. to be penetrated, with three main lines noted above, by obtaining secret information; conducting active measures to weaken the enemy; exposing the enemy’s plans for preparation of a new war by imperialist states; support of national liberation movements; battle with enemy intelligence and counterintelligence agents; providing security for institutions and citizens of socialist countries abroad.
I. Political Intelligence Tasks on Study of Capitalist Countries’ Foreign Policies
Get documents and materials on:
a) secret political, economic and war plans regarding the USSR and other socialist countries; these include transcripts of meetings; secret instructions to diplomats and ministries; plans for creating military blocs, etc.
b) sabotage activity of the main imperialist states against socialist countries — US, UK, FRG, France, Japan; also get intel on their activity in each others’ countries; also intel from NATO, SEATO, Baghdad Pact, Asian-Pacific Council re: military and strategic plans, secret agreements, reports from leaders; inspection trip reports; transcripts of meetings. Get intel on role each member plays, taking into account American imperialism directs it; find contradictions and disagreements among the members; for example conflicts between US and FRG, France, UK, Italy on economic issues; differents between US and UK on Middle East as well as France; get info on nature and depth of these conflicts; find the weak links; deepen the conflicts and contradictions; find out which new members they want to bring in;
c) plans directed against national liberation movements in Africa, Asia, Latin America; plans on their puppet governments and neocolonialist methods; their economic, political and ideological penetration in order to thwart them. Get secret info on methods and means to suppress independence movements; hold events to expose their plans; find out secret agreements and expose them; get intel on concessions, loans etc. to expose
d) activity of political parties and organizations in leadership roles as well as opposition if they influence domestic and foreign policy; their attitudes toward the socialist countries; get meeting transcripts, statements made privately to small groups of people;
e) contradictions between capitalist countries on key international policies. Get secret information especially on US, UK, FRG, France, Japan; details on their differences; positions of party leaders; memos on differences and disagreements; transcripts of ambassadors’ meetings; instructions sent to posts; off-the-record statements of government and party leaders.
Documents on intentions, thinking, and plans are most important to get.
The imperialist countries are afraid when they see the success of socialist countries.
The monopolist circles of the USA suppress workers’ and democratic movements and disrupt socialist community; they create aggressive blocs; fuel the arms race.
But the imperialists are checked by the Soviet Union’s nuclear potential and prevention of war. For this, intelligence has to find out the military plans of the imperialists; the state of their economies; their activity in international organizations, etc.
2. Intelligence tasks on Study of Domestic Policies of Capitalist Countries
Intel must reveal correlation of class forces; reveal plans and measures of government and parties; expose true reasons behind them. It must answer the question: which forces are used by reactionary circles for anti-democratic, reactionary purposes; which support the peace-loving policy of the socialist countries.
What are forms of class and national liberation struggle; differences and disagreements among bourgeois parties; the peace movement.
Imperialists prepare for new war to suppress the progressive and democratic movements.
Find out composition of government, political parties, organizations, groups; opposition; monopolies; ruling circles; reactionary groups against the communist party; media and propaganda; on the situation of ethnic minorities
Government composition; how solid are positions; social and economic forces they rely on; inter-party struggle in parliament; activity of opposition groups; directives and secret instructions to local governments; conflicts within ruling circles; popular attitudes toward the government.
Also external factors that influence domestic politics; chief among these are the pressure that the main imperialist countries puton the smaller ones.
Political parties and organizations
Get info on political activity, program and tactics of various parties; characterization of their leaders; their attitudes to socialist countries; faction fights; for example need intel on both Democratic and Republican parties in US and in English, both Conservative and Labour; get info on behind-the-scenes activity; which parties conduct the line of foreign powers; which parties can the socialist countries rely on.
Bourgeois governments virtually carry out the will of major monopolies, so intel on them is paramount; find out their foreign and domestic policy lines; study the degree they are subordinate to the government; find out unofficial contacts and connections; on the degree of influence of foreign monopolists
Bourgeois propaganda activity
Various government ideological and propaganda organs are the chief weapon of propaganda in bourgeois countries; knowing the press is a key intel activity; studying their propaganda services, channels to influence socialist countries, tour groups, delegations etc; USIAm which carries out subversive propaganda activity and espionage and diversionary activities against socialist countries, and the international communist, workers’ and national liberation movemets.
By penetrating press and propaganda organs, socialist intelligence agencies can not only get information but disrupt plans for ideological sabotage and influence public opinion.
Study the sources of financing; characterize the top editors and journalists; see how top parties use the media.
3. Intelligence tasks in military and political field
Study military policy, economies, number, organization and deployment of armed forces; tactics and strategies; likely theaters of action; find out about military tech; strategic, operational and tactical intel.
Obtain secret info, expose plans for war; study influence of military groups; reactionary/fascist parties; e.g. influence of military-industrial complexes in US and FRG, National Democratic Party in FRG etc.
Get intel on diplomacy, making of allies; preparation of war in economy; ideological warfare.
Expose military plans; find out practical preparation (especially of US, UK, FRG, France, Japan); intentions on use of missiles including thermonuclear; other weapons of mass destruction.
Find out main bases, military potential, plans against socialist countries; also plans of bodies such as NATO, SEATO, Baghdad Pact;
Study contradictions among US, England, FRG, France Japan and their allies.
Plans can differ depending on role in international arena; military might; geographical location. Find out allies and scientific/technical intel in military.
Plans and intentions; participation in blocs; covert or overt role in blocs; connections to main imperialist countries.
Wars depend on economy as never before; dependency of battle capacity on economy; strategic plans are realistic only by taking into account military and economic potential.
NATO countries are the priority.
Study military industry; info on militarization of the economy; state of agriculture; material reserves; strategic raw materials; dependency on foreign markets for materials; what imports they need; what funds available for military
Sometimes foreign intel and military intel have joint plans or exchange information with other countries, in order to weaken the defense of the socialist countries.
4. Intelligence tasks on capitalist countries’ economies
Get info on the secret side of their economic policy which is significant for development of trade and economic ties; proceed from the Marxist-Leninist definition that politics and economics are interrelated and develop as a whole;
“Politics is a concentrated expression of economics” – Lenin
Also get scientific and technical info; secret info on economic policy; hidden economic springs of domestic and foreign policies;
USA is the priority; find out plans to subvert economies of socialist countries; secret talks between capitalist countries; boycotts, discrimination etc; relationship of capitalist business circles to socialist countries; find out which are ready to cooperate with socialist countries; expose weaknesses; contradictions; internal disputes; relations inside Common Market.
Industry and military industry; what are needs; procurement orders; will they help socialist countries.
Get intel on contradictions in US; forms and methods of expansionism; agressive policies of reactionary circles; competition for raw materials; markets for capital investment.
American monopolists now have it hard as socialist countries compete with them and their popular masses resist them; American expansionism can hide under other forms, i.e. help to developing countries; various pacts and agreements; thus the need for secrect intel that will expose this.
The aggressive policy of the US reactionary circles is closed connected to the expansion of American capital; these are the real reasons for the capitalist contradictions so socialiast intel ineeds info on this, on sources of raw material, markets, and influence on capital investment.
Economic expansion leads to resistance by masses; even the local national bourgeoisie may resist against the US.
Need intel on secret plans to remove the internal contradictions; state of industry; strategic assets; domestic and foreign trade; hard currency reserves; plans to print currency, etc.
Also on prominent industrialists and financiers; on assessment of them and their prospects.
5. Fundamental targets for agent networks’ penetration
As they conduct their aggressive policy against the socialist countries and prepare for a new war, the capitalists have reduced the circle of those with access to secret material of interest to intelligence. But if operative work is correctly organized, targets can be penetrated.
Such targets are government, party, science, technical, military, economic and other institutions;
– offices of heads of states
– foreign ministries
a) cabinet of ministers
b) classified/encryption department through which telegrams go from ministries abroad
c) political departments of governments; economic departments;
d) treaty and legal departments
e) typists’ bureau
f) consular departments
g) diplomatic communications departments
– diplomatic missions in other countries
– parliamentary and governmemt commission; economic committees in parliament
– ministries and agencies with access to intelligence, involved in counterintelligence against the enemy and socialist countries
– ruling parties’ executives
– local government offices
– telegraph agencies, press and propaganda organs
– intergovernmental bodies like NATO, SEATO
– ministries of defense
– ministries responsible for defense manufacturing, procurement of raw materials; monopolists who fulfill military orders
– staff of cabinet of ministers, presidential council on economy in US; committee on economy in UK; ministries involved in finance and trade.
– budget offices; statistical offices, i.e. Bureau of Statistics in US; Central Statistics Agency in UK
– monopolists such as the Steel Trust, General Motors, Standard Oil; in UK, Imperial Chemical Trust, Lloyd’s of London; in France the Rothschilds trading house; central banks; in US, First National Bank, Morgan, Chase Bank, Rockefellers; in England, Barclays and Midland Bank; British Federation of Industrialists
Work on gathering economic intel differs from other info as analysis of the materials on the spot by the rezidenturas plays a much greater role.
Important to compare intel gathered with existing official data; following all official economic publications can only be done in country, and therefore determining the value of economic material is the responsibility of the rezidenturas in capitalist countries. The work has to be assigned to intelligence officers who have the relevant training and systematically study the country’s economy.
Some issues on study of penetration targets
Targets must be studied carefully and systematically by both the Center and the rezidenturas. The Center should keep files on all materials obtained about a given target. Rezidenturas in the given country will provide information as well as those in other countries, from legal sources.
Studying a target means collecting info on its organizational structure; tasks, functions, personnel, in order to determine what secret info might be there used for influence and other active measures, regarding government institutions, parliaments, political parties etc.
Keep in mind structures and personnel can change; surveillance has to be constant. If the Center has no info, and the rezidentura doesn’t have any agents in the target, then you have to start with legal sources and look for approaches.
Find the most important links, know which department has which info; who is responsible for secret documents; look for ways to get at files; know the work schedule, location of the archive, who’s in charge.
Study personnel most of all, determine which ones are candidates to be recruited; but penetration can be done not only with recruitment; agents can be infiltrated in some cases Use agents that may have ties to personnel inside, relatives, business contacts, friends.
6. Agent measures to influence life in capitalist countries (active measures)
Foreign policy of socialist countries can be helped by intelligence not only through getting secrets but through active measures in politics, economics, ideology, science, technology, armed forces, intelligence, counter-intelligence. Active measures are certain offensive actions by socialist countries’ intelligence along all lines of their activity. Above all they should:
1) foster strengthening of the USSR’s position as well as socialist countries for successful foreign policy lines
2) disrupt enemy activity from imperialist powers; intensify their conflicts among themselves;
3) expose actual nature and aggressive aims of NATO, SEATO etc.
4) weaken and disorganize activity of various reactionary parties and unions;
5) compromise agencies that engage in ideological sabotage and other hostile operations;
6) expose preparations for new world war, neocolonial policies against other nations;
7) create difficulties in the work of intel and counterintel agencies; expose their sabotage
8) facilitate the destruction of emigre centers that cooperate with imperialist intel;
“Agent network influence” is the term for active measures carried out by a network of agents.
An agent of influence can be a minister, prominent government or party figure; major journalist; publisher of a newspaper; influential civic or religious figure, etc. People who may not be so prominent but still have influence on government and civic figures, i.e. their close relatives, lovers, a priest, etc.) are also in this category.
The agent network of influence isn’t used so much to collect info as to perform actions that will help the socialist countries.
This would include criticizing foreign policy; making statements in favor of socialist countries; getting decisions made in favor of the socialist countries.
The peace movement in all the capitalist countries has broad segments of the workers’ and peasants’ classes but also a significant part of the intelligentsia; some capitalist countries have prominent politicians, scientists, etc. involved who are for peaceful settlements of disputes, talks with socialist countries.
Exploiting this situation, agent of influence can only oppose the government’s actions aimed at the arms race and destruction of remnants of bourgeois democracy; they can oppose the government budget for the arms race; the mismanagement of government funds; they can oppose American economic expansionism.
Material and moral support of political parties, organizations, press is in the interests of the socialist states. They can provide secret support to political, cultural, religious, media etc. organizations.
But the strictest conspiracy must be maintained in giving aid so as not to harm these parties, etc.
Example: After a government crisis in a capitalist country, a new government was formed in a coalition with agrarians and socialists, with a foreign policy totally subordinate to American imperialism. This government suppressed democratic freedoms and the interests of the working class, and was especially oppressive of the communist party. The economic situation in this country was terrible. Many plants closed due to the pro-American position, leading to workers’ unrest as well as that of small and medium bourgeoisie. A new party with a pro-Soviet line was formed calling for the development of domestic industry. This part was progressive in being anti-American, pro-national dependence, and friendly to socialist countries. The Soviet rezidentura used this situation to do a number of active measures.
The rezidentura had intel that since 1946, a “Union of Fatherland Defenders” had existed which united some intelligentsia, middle-level bureaucrats and some liberal bourgeoisie. They called for independence from the US and UK, normal trade relations with the USSR, etc. It began to get more attention, but had little funds and didn’t even publish its own newspaper.
The agentura studied the head of this group (“Bob”), found that he was a supporter of the USSR’s peace-loving policy; they were able to get him interested in taking subsidies for his party. He was recruited for various active measures then; he started a paper, “Union,” where he published a line carefully cultivated with Soviet intelligence’s help. The agentura also provided him with factual material; exposes of corruption; American monopolists’ intrigues, etc. and advocated economic independence.
American intelligence was upset and tried to infiltrate this group and destroy the organization with internal unrest; A certain “Khlost” was suspected of working for the US in this group; Soviet intelligence decided to put their agent in the group (“Sned”) so that he could oppose the US agent.
Sned had a cover as an industrialist; Bob was recommended to call for trade with the USSR and ask industrialists to join his Union. Sned put money into the group; he became prominent. He didn’t reveal his ties to Soviet intelligence; he kept watch over Khlost, saying that he was disseminating provocative rumors and slandering Bob as corrupt and unprincipled, supposedly having Nazi ties in World War II. Khlost also criticized the Union’s program; he advocated getting economic aid from the US as otherwise the country couldn’t overcome its economic problems. Khlost found like-minded members to form an opposition within the Union.
The rezidentura found that Khlost had been in France doing business when the Nazis occupied it and had cooperated with them, exposing some emigres from his countrymen. He feared retaliation at home and didn’t return home right away after the war.
Soviet intelligence exposed him and provoked lack of confidence in Bob, but this is when Sned began to rebel and demand proof of Bob’s collaboration with the Nazis. Khlost tried to smooth it over but Sned insisted. He told other members that he believed Sned had been sent into the group to disrupt and split it. If he couldn’t come up with his claims of Bob’s collaboration first with Nazis, then with Communists, the opposition within the group should stand down.
As expected, Khlost couldn’t come up with the proof; Sned then accused Khlost of collaboration with the Hitlerites; Khlost then accused Send of libel and threatened him with a lawsuit. But most of the opposition expressed no confidence in Khlost; Sned promised to gather kompromat on him; he used his ties with police which were given to him by the rezidentura.
Khlost didn’t come to the next meeting; he was expelled in absentia and that was the end of the group’s internal opposition. The media picked up the story and implied that the Union’s enemies were so concerned about their influence that they were bent on weakening it; but American intelligence failed.
The Union became so influential that there was prediction that a new party would be made on its foundation; Bob did not have the capacity to lead a larger party, he was a poor organizer, even if popular; a civic figure was recruited to lead the Union and the Center ensured that the rezidentura was tasked to put “Lauren” another agent of influence in the leadership. He was already known widely as a progressive; industrialists gathered around him, as well as some advocates of political neutrality and restoring the national economy; they saw Lauren as a leader but didn’t do anything; Soviet intelligence took the tactic of having Lauren appear reluctant and turn down offers to lead the party, biding his time; several weeks before the parliamentary elections the Center gave the order to have Lauren accept the proposal to lead the Union; he published a major article exposing the government’s destructive economic policy and urging independence of his country; as a true patriot he couldn’t stand aside from the anti-war movement.
At a Union presidium meeting, Lauren was made leader and Bob general secretary and newspaper editor; the announcement of his new leadership brought a flow of new people and more demand for the newspaper. Union nominated candidates to parliament; thus as a result of the detailed and difficult work of the rezidentura, mission accomplished.
Another example of a reactionary party’s destruction:
In a certain capitalist country, the issue was being decided whether to keep a democratic regime or liquidate democratic achievements, which the American imperialists were especially interested in, having unleashed an anti-democratic campaign in this country through their intelligence.
A progress democratic party that took part in the government was subjected to increasing attacks, especially by the National Party, the most reactionary in the country. There was fear this party would create a crisis and take power.
With the approval of the Center, one of the socialist intelligence agencies hatched an active measure to weaken the reactionary party and prevent them from isolating the democratic party.
An agent code-named “John” had earlier been recruited from the National Party; he had personal differences with the head of state and the head of the party and kept to the sidelines of party activity. The rezidentura decided to use John for an active measure. He said he had a number of supporters in the party; he wanted an immediate, open attack on the leadership, the creation of an opposition newspaper, and bringing in a regional leader of the party as the head of a new party.
But the rezidentura thought this plan was premature and instructed John to hold back or he’d simply be expelled from the party. He was told to gradually unite his supporters while maintaining an outward appearance of loyalty and keeping the rezidentura informed.
Then the rezidentura learned about the plans of reactionary parties to provoke a government crisis; John was ordered to speak out against the government with his group then appeal to change the party’s leadership. The party leadership was thrown into confusion; many members said they supported John, and the party split within a matter of days. This helped the democratic party stay in power.
Compromising reactionary political parties and figures
In order to disrupt the influence of hostile, reactionary parties, kompromat has to be organized depending on circumstances, i.e. exposing immoral acts or political, financial etc. machinations; publishing of letters. “The compromising material must be mainly plausible, otherwise no one will believe it.”
Exposure of anti-democratic activity and plans of reactionary forces
American imperialists libel socialist countries and mislead the masses in the media; socialist intelligence has to expose these lies and fabrications.
Publish secret information; publish only excerpts of documents with brief annotation; publish photo-copies; reveal true plans of the parties.
Disinformation is one of the effective means to influence various sides of political and economic life, parties, organizations; these pre-planned actions aimed at leading the enemy into confusion on various issues in ways advantageous to socialist countries.
“Work on disinformation requires from intelligence exceptional attention, detailed knowledge of the issue being prepared for disinformation, and careful study of all circumstances concerning the target of disinformation. To the extent possible, one must know what means the enemy has or will have to obtain reliable information on a given issue, the degree of the enemy’s knowledge of the issue, etc.”
“Disinformation documents are developed in such a way to be plausible in content as well as form. The fabricated ‘facts’ or ‘events’ in such documents must be logically justified, relevant to the existing course of events and must be combined with real facts.”
“The means for planting disinformation materials on the enemy may be various: press, radio, agents’ network, ‘confidential’ conversations exposed by technical eavesdropping on the enemy; ‘losses’ of documents or invented creation of conditions for the ‘theft’ or ‘secret’ confiscation of documents by the enemy containing disinformation.”
“The most often used and effective means of disseminating disinformation are the agents’ network channels and the use of detected enemy eavesdropping technology. The transfer of disinformation materials by foreign intelligence through its planted agents has the advantage that this information, if it is well-prepared, will be quickly reported to offices (in the government, general staff, etc.).”
Study the target carefully, check all the materials about it.
Choosing the moment is of great significance. Keep in mind that it is “useless, and even dangerous to conduct active measures if they are based on materials that do not reflect the real state of things.”
Example: “A certain socialist country’s intelligence agency regularly received materials on internal conflicts in a political party in a capitalist country. The analysis and re-checking of these materials was not done with sufficient thoroughness, as a result of which the rezidentura came to unfounded conclusions that the conflicts in this party had gone so deep that two wings may be formed in it.”
It was thought that most party members would go into the progressive wing, and the leadership would be left with having to make a compromise with the splitters and make concessions.
But in fact it was otherwise; the conflicts were not so deep; an attempt at splitting the party was risky and dangerous; and that’s how it happened. While the party was damaged, its reactionary part, which was a large part, preserved its unity and the opposition was isolated and then expelled from the party.
II. Scientific and Technological Intelligence
1. Tasks of scientific and technical intelligence (STI, known as NTR in Russian)
STI obtains information about achievements and discoveries abroad with the capitalist countries a priority, focusing on those which accelerate development and can be used by the enemy for his aggressive plans. Science and technology development in the capitalist countries is focused on preparation of a new war; proof of this are the huge sums allocated in the US and a few other imperialist countries to financing science and technology work in military agencies; this is key for conducting war. A country’s military and economic potential depends on such scientific development and training of qualified cadres.
Socialist intelligence needs science & technology intelligence not just for defense but for development as unlike the imperialists it puts such technology to the benefit of the people.
Fundamental tasks of STI:
a) provide military agencies with information on technology with military application and all new achievements in this field
b) provide scientific research and manufacturing organizations with information to help the economy
– defend the Motherland from attacks by aggressors who hope to use their technology on them;
– use the information obtained to advance world industry for the workers’ welfare.
2. Some basic problems of interest to STI
The aggressive imperialists of the USA and NATO don’t count on the moral resolve of their soldiers in preparing for a new war. That is one of the reasons why they use various automatic forms of weapons and weapons of mass destruction.
Enormous sums are spent on developing atomic and thermonuclear weapons and their delivery and targeting systems; also expensive work on developing bacterial and chemical weapons; poisonous substances designed to disrupt the nervous system.
Great attention should be devoted to rapid reaction bombing aviation; long-range escort jet fighters; guided missile systems; intercontinental ballistic missiles; radiation weapons. Also electronics, especially radio, radar, automatic systems, calculation systems for guided artillery weapons’ detection of enemy fire.
Synthetics — plastic with new features such as heat, acid, and frost resistance; concentrated fuel for jet mortars; high-temperature capacity; iron and steal; special alloys needed for new forms of weapons
a) atomic energy; natural and artificial materials, thorium, uranium, plutonium; equipment and technological processes; data on theoretical designs in nuclear physics; study of atomic nucleus and its properties; construction of atomic and thermonuclear bombs; atomic energy stations; engines for submarines, boats and planes; plasma nuclear engines; space ships, satellites, etc.
b) bacteria; types and features of bacteria and viruses used; methods of mass production;
c) electronics – diagrams, plans, radar, computers; guided missile systems; radio communications
d) organic and inorganic chemistry, polymers; new explosives, poisons; production of strategic chemical materials; acids; ultra-strong and heat-resistant materials; special-purpose alkalines
e) iron and steel – basic production improvement processes for cast iron, steal, non-ferrous metals; specials means of processing of poor ores; technologies for producing special alloys and smelting of rare metals; titanium, beryllium; with wide application for energy usages; technology for obtaining super-pure metals; metals with high mechanical durability and anti-corrosive metals.
3. Targets for agents’ network penetration
The increasing militarization of the imperialist economies, especially the US, UK and FRG lead to the expansion of scientific and technological work applied to military purposes and a widespread participation of industrial firms in such military production; all of this requires an expanded STI targets:
– state agencies involved in planning, organization, funding, and research of applied military industry; central government agencies like the department of defense mobilization in the US and its special committees on scientific research; the British department of scientific and industrial research and supply; French national center for scientific research; Italian national council on research, etc. Also general staffs where documentation is concentrated and testing of new forms of armaments is ordered; French Commissariat for Atomic Energy or American Commission on Atomic Energy
– state and private scientific research centers and laboratories; design bureaus; testing stations, proving grounds, experimental factories;
– high technology institutions, universities, societies, academies with military contracts with government or training cadres for these fields;
– private and state industry involved in manufacture of military equipment and technology
– patent bureaus, archives, libraries with secret technical literature from state and private firms and scientific institutions
Given the large number of targets, need for clear and focused organization of intelligence work to get intel of most use to socialist states; need for careful planning, definition of topics needed; route for penetration.
Need for agents to keep briefed on scientific/technological developments; concentrate their attention and efforts on targets that have the most interest at the given time and most favorable conditions for getting intel.
The agents’ network working inside the target is the best means. But studying the target with agents not always possible. Then you have to use open or semi-official sources, reference books, scientific press, various corporate publications, studying them carefully.
The Center has resources on targets, either grouped on topic or separately on a given product which will ease the work of agents studying the targets. Daily, detailed work needed in studying targets.
Scientists are to be recruited by the agents’ network as well engineers, and other personnel in research centers, libraries, industrial plants etc.
Only highly-qualified personnel have access to the most secret materials, so agents have to be recruited from among the leading scientists and technicians at research centers, ministries, major libraries with broad specialization; look for senior science officials, executives of firms performing special orders. Sometimes typists, secretaries, librarians, workers at publishers, etc. are useful.
III. Counterintelligence Work Abroad
Capitalist intelligence and counterintelligence organizes sabotage inside socialist countries and against their offices and citizens abroad. Foreign counterintelligence leads the struggle against such hostile activity by the enemy and by various factions of emigre organizations abroad.
Capitalist intelligence and counterintelligence tries to recruit unstable and hostile elements from within socialist countries and also infiltrates its spies into these countries to sabotage institutions, organize provocations, and recruit agents.
Various hostile emigre organizations are used for this purpose. All the threads of sabotage lead to the capitalist countries, so the CI agents’ work is eased by getting intel on plans from capitalist intel. Foreign CI is involved in intercepting enemy’s attempts at infiltration.
Basic CI tasks:
– work against intel and CI agencies in capitalist countries; expose and disrupt their sabotage of socialist countries;
– work to disrupt and paralyze reactionary emigre organizations, among the chief bases for hostile intel and spy recruitment;
– CI work on exposing sabotage against socialist institutions abroad;
– work at exposing sabotage intentions
– help to socialist state security agencies and CI activities abroad;
I. Work against intelligence and CI agencies of capitalist countries
Work includes exposure and interception of activity by capitalist intelligence and CI; exposure of enemy agents’ network dropped or prepared for dropping into socialist countries.
Job is to penetrate their networks and study structure, personnel, methods of sabotage; battle hostile CI; expose plots, channels of infiltration of their agents; routes of their networks; passwords, meeting places; learn what they know about socialist countries’ intelligence.
Study forms and methods of work; training of cadres; conduct disinformation; distract enemy’s efforts and means to solving secondary problems, etc.
Top priority are intel and CI agencies penetrating socialist countries, get their codes, card file of gents, etc.
Penetrate their schools; expose agents being prepared to be dropped into socialist countries.
2. Work against emigre groups
Reactionary emigre organizations try to show they are political organizations only acting from ideological and political consideration, independent of the countries where they are located, and not connected with foreign intelligence.
But as we all know, they are all sell-outs, are on the dole with imperialist governments; and serve as a base for their recruitment of spies, saboteurs and terrorists.
Many emigre groups have their own intel agencies; they organize sabotage against socialist countries; this makes them very important targets for penetration.
Penetration is achieved by recruiting leaders of these groups; getting into leadership; get info on intel in US, UK, FRG, France; study the cadres, methods, means of sabotage; get into their schools where spies are trained; one of the important tasks is to recruit teachers and service personnel in these schools.
Active ways of penetration into emigre organizations is through operational “games” under a legend which help expose the enemy underground centers, their communications with foreign intelligence agencies, etc.
3. Counterintelligence work in exposing and intercepting diversionary activity
The capitalist countries have various offices, missions, trade representatives, press bureaus, etc. in the socialist countries. In some countries — Algeria, UAR, Burma, Mali, Guinea, etc. there are large numbers of citizens from socialist countries, specialists and works helping industrial plants, medical institutions, universities. These personnel are the object of intensive interest from imperialist CI, and they organize various provocations against them and try to recruit them and their family members — teachers of foreign languages, janitors, stokers, translators, tailors, hairdressers, etc. The rezidentura has to be on the look-out to intercept these:
– agent penetration against socialist offices; provocations; need to learn enemy plans in advance
– recruitment of agents’ networks from among locals working there
– recruitment of socialist citizens who come on business to these countries
Materials coming to socialist countries’ citizens must be checked thoroughly an prophylactic measures taken; counterintel work abroad is extremely important and has to be at the center of the rezidentura’s attention constantly.